Munc13 proteins form a family of three, primarily brain-specific phorbol ester receptors (Munc13-1/2/3) in mammals. Munc13-1 is a component of presynaptic active zones in which it acts as an essential synaptic vesicle priming protein. In contrast to Munc13-1, which is present in most neurons throughout the rat and mouse CNS, Munc13-3 is almost exclusively expressed in the cerebellum. Munc13-3 mRNA is present in granule and Purkinje cells but absent from glia cells. Munc13-3 protein is localized to the synaptic neuropil of the cerebellar molecular layer but is not found in Purkinje cell dendrites, suggesting that Munc13-3, like Munc13-1, is a presynaptic protein at parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses. To examine the role of Munc13-3 in cerebellar physiology, we generated Munc13-3-deficient mutant mice. Munc13-3 deletion mutants exhibit increased paired-pulse facilitation at parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses. In addition, mutant mice display normal spontaneous motor activity but have an impaired ability to learn complex motor tasks. Our data demonstrate that Munc13-3 regulates synaptic transmission at parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses. We propose that Munc13-3 acts at a similar step of the synaptic vesicle cycle as does Munc13-1, albeit with less efficiency. In view of the present data and the well established vesicle priming function of Munc13-1, it is likely that Munc13-3-loss leads to a reduction in release probability at parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses by interfering with vesicle priming. This, in turn, would lead to increases in paired-pulse facilitation and could contribute to the observed deficit in motor learning.